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Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, simultaneously a theory of personality, a therapy, and an intellectual movement. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Freiburg, Moravia, now part of Czechoslovakia, but then a city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the age of 4, he moved to Vienna, where he spent nearly his entire life. In 1873 he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna and spent the following eight years pursuing a wide range of studies, including philosophy, in addition to the medical curriculum. After graduating, he worked in several clinics and went to Paris to study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist who used hypnosis to treat the symptoms of hysteria. When Freud returned to Vienna and set up practice as a clinical neurologist, he found orthodox therapies for nervous disorders ineffective for most of his patients, so he began to use a modified version of the hypnosis he had learned under Charcot. Gradually, however, he discovered that it was not necessary to put patients into a deep trance; rather, he would merely encourage them to talk freely, saying whatever came to mind without self-censorship, in order to bring unconscious material to the surface, where it could be analyzed. He found that this method of free association very often evoked memories of traumatic events in childhood, usually having to do with sex. This discovery led him, at first, to assume that most of his patients had actually been seduced as children by adult relatives and that this was the cause of their neuroses; later, however, he changed his mind and concluded that his patients' memories of childhood seduction were fantasies born of their childhood sexual desires for adults. (This reversal is a matter of some controversy today.) Out of this clinical material he constructed a theory of psychosexual development through oral, anal, phallic and genital stages. Freud considered his patients' dreams and his own to be "the royal road to the unconscious." In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), perhaps his most brilliant book, he theorized that dreams are heavily disguised expressions of deep-seated wishes and fears and can give great insight into personality. These investigations led him to his theory of a three-part structure of personality: the id (unconscious biological drives, especially for sex), the superego (the conscience, guided by moral principles), and the ego (the mediator between the id and superego, guided by reality). Freud's last years were plagued by severe illness and the rise of Nazism, which regarded psychoanalysis as a "Jewish pollution." Through the intervention of the British and U.S. governments, he was allowed to emigrate in 1938 to England, where he died 15 months later, widely honored for his original thinking. His theories have had a profound impact on psychology, anthropology, art, and literature, as well as on the thinking of millions of ordinary people about their own lives. Freud's daughter Anna Freud was the founder of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic in London, where her specialty was applying psychoanalysis to children. Her major work was The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936). (Bowker Author Biography)
— biography from Das Unbehagen in der Kultur
… (mehr)
Das Unbehagen in der Kultur 4,999 Exemplare, 36 Rezensionen
Die Traumdeutung 4,634 Exemplare, 41 Rezensionen
Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse 2,068 Exemplare, 16 Rezensionen
Die Zukunft einer Illusion 1,561 Exemplare, 14 Rezensionen
Totem und Tabu 1,394 Exemplare, 10 Rezensionen
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The Freud Reader 810 Exemplare, 5 Rezensionen
The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud 808 Exemplare, 3 Rezensionen
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Abriss der Psychoanalyse 590 Exemplare, 4 Rezensionen
On Dreams 581 Exemplare, 5 Rezensionen
Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse (Autor) 562 Exemplare, 2 Rezensionen
Three Case Histories 490 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Studien über Hysterie 435 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Das Unheimliche (German Edition) 358 Exemplare, 2 Rezensionen
Hemmung, Symptom und Angst 242 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
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The Freud/Jung Letters 207 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
On Metapsychology 171 Exemplare, 2 Rezensionen
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Character & Culture 127 Exemplare
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A Young Girl's Diary (Vorwort) 119 Exemplare, 3 Rezensionen
Warum Krieg? 118 Exemplare, 2 Rezensionen
The Schreber Case 116 Exemplare, 2 Rezensionen
Forgetting Things 99 Exemplare
The essentials of psycho-analysis 99 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Deviant Love 80 Exemplare
Selected Writings 78 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
The Wolfman 72 Exemplare
Therapy and Technique 68 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Oeuvres complètes 51 Exemplare
Delusion and dream : and other essays 48 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Obras Completas. 26 Volumenes 28 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Samlade skrifter 27 Exemplare
Briefe 1873-1939 25 Exemplare
Aforismi e pensieri 19 Exemplare
La histeria 17 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Casi clinici 16 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
La psicoanalisi 16 Exemplare
Zwei Kinderneurosen 15 Exemplare
Opere 1886-1905 14 Exemplare
Tapauskertomukset 14 Exemplare
Obras completas 14 Exemplare
Paranoia y neurosis obsesiva 13 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
Opere 1905/1921 12 Exemplare
Correspondence 12 Exemplare, 1 Rezension
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Brautbriefe 10 Exemplare
De draagbare Freud 9 Exemplare
Selbstdarstellung 8 Exemplare
Pszichoanalízis 8 Exemplare
Epistolario 7 Exemplare
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Il sogno 7 Exemplare
Dreams in folklore 6 Exemplare
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Werken 6 Exemplare
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Opere 1886-1921 5 Exemplare
Il perturbante 5 Exemplare
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Essays. 5 Exemplare
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por que la guerra 4 Exemplare
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Les mots de Freud 4 Exemplare
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Freud: Therapy and Technique (Autor) 3 Exemplare
Metapsykologi 3 Exemplare
Sogni nel folklore 3 Exemplare
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Ein ganz besonderer Saft - Urin (Mitwirkender) 8 Exemplare
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